Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) is involved in a number of different embryo and adult cell and tissue types, including mesenchymal, neuronal and epithelial cells. Human FGF10 protein is expressed in the mesenchyme and functions through interacting with the epithelial FGF Receptor 2b (Fgfr2b)1. It has also been shown to interact weakly with FGF Receptor 1b2. The mature form of human FGF10 protein is an approximately 20 kDa protein highly similar to FGF7 and with a serine-rich region near its N-terminus3. It is secreted by mesenchymal cells and is bound and activated by extracellular FGF-BP4.
Human fibroblast growth factor 10 is first active in the limb bud mesoderm where it creates and maintains FGF signalling with epithelial FGF8, then drives a positive feedback loop accumulating mesenchyme in the growing bud, and finally induces the apical ectodermal ridge which ultimately gives rise to feet and hands5. Lung development is based on the same epithelial-mesenchymal FGF mediations involving FGF10 from the foregut mesenchyme signalling to FGFR2 in the foregut epithelium6.
Furthermore, FGF10 protein is involved in the development of white adipose tissue, heart, liver, brain, kidney, thymus, inner ear, tongue, trachea, eye, prostate, salivary gland and mammary gland. It has been shown to induce migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells and to be associated with breast cancer risk, and patients with FGF10 haploinsufficiency present symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Human recombinant FGF10 protein also drives the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into gut-like structures, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes1.