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Human Gremlin 1 protein is a BMP-inhibitor present in the natural intestinal niche and provides an alternative to Noggin for optimisation of intestinal organoid culture and iPSC differentiation.
Qk015 has been optimized by our experts for exceptionally high-purity production in E.coli and bioactivity. 18 kDa high purity dimeric protein, animal-free and carrier protein free
Orders are typically shipped same or next day (except Friday). Easy world-wide shipping.
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1mg may be despatched as 2 x 500µg
high purity human Gremlin 1 protein (Uniprot: O60565)
expressed in E. coli
animal-free (AOF) and carrier protein-free.
manufactured in our Cambridge, UK laboratories
lyophilized from acetonitrile, TFA
resuspend in 10mM HCl at >100 µg/ml, prepare single use aliquots, add carrier protein if desired and store frozen at -20 oC or -80 oC
tumor organoid culture
1. Kišonaitė, M., Wang, X. & Hyvönen, M. Structure of Gremlin-1 and analysis of its interaction with BMP-2. The Biochemical journal 473, 1593–1604 (2016).
2. Kosinski, C. et al. Gene expression patterns of human colon tops and basal crypts and BMP antagonists as intestinal stem cell niche factors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 15418–15423 (2007).
3. Yan, K. et al. Glioma cancer stem cells secrete Gremlin1 to promote their maintenance within the tumor hierarchy. Genes & development 28, 1085–1100 (2014).
Gremlin-1 inhibits BMP-2 induced luciferase activity BRE-HEK293 luciferase reporter assay with an IC50 = 34 ng/ml (1.88 nM)
Gremlin 1 activity is determined using inhibition of the BMP2 response (Qk007 #010, 52 ng/ml) from a BMP2-responsive firefly luciferase reporter in stably transfected HEK293T cells. Cells are treated (n=4) with a serial dilution of Gremlin 1 in BMP2 for 6 hours. Firefly luciferase activity is measured and normalized to the control Renilla luciferase activity. Data from Qk015 batch #011.
Gremlin 1 protein migrates as a single diffuse band at ~36 kDa in non-reducing (NR) and 19 kDa in reducing (R) conditions. The protein is a non-covalent dimer and it is the dissociation of the dimer during electrophoresis which gives the characteristic diffuse band.
Purified recombinant protein (7 µg) was resolved using 15% w/v SDS-PAGE in reduced (+β-mercaptothanol, R) and non-reduced conditions (NR) and stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250. Data from Qk015 lot #011.
further quality assays
mass spectrometry: single species with expected mass
analytical reversed-phase: single sharp peak
endotoxin: <0.005 EU/μg protein (below level of detection)
We are a company founded and run by scientists to provide a service and support innovation in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. All our products are exceptionally high purity, with complete characterisation and bioactivity analysis on every lot.
Gremlin 1 protein (GREM1, isoform-1) belongs to the BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) antagonist family. Gremlin 1 protein binds BMP2, BMP4, BMP7 and other BMP family proteins1 and inhibits receptor binding. It is highly expressed in the small intestine at the base of the intestinal crypts, as are the related proteins, Gremlin 2 and Chordin-like 1. In this niche, they help maintain the stem cell population by inhibiting BMP produced by mesenchymal cells2. Expression of Gremlin 1 protein is also detected in fetal brain and colon, and at lower levels in adult brain, prostate, pancreas and skeletal muscle.
Recombinant human Gremlin 1 protein and other BMP-antagonists, such as Noggin, are used in the derivation, growth and maintenance of organoids from epithelial tissues including intestinal, liver and pancreatic organoids. However, roles for recombinant Gremlin 1 protein in cancer stem cell maintenance in glioblastoma have been suggested3.
We welcome all feedback and specialist collaborator data on all our products. If you would like to provide application-specific feedback for human Gremlin, please contact us firstname.lastname@example.org”
Our products are for research use only and not for diagnostic or therapeutic use. Products are not for resale.
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