with maturity, unlike native tissue, meaning that they may not be able to accurately replicate the full range of cardiac functions. Growth factors and cytokines have been identified to play essential roles during cardiac development and are necessary for cardiac tissue regeneration processes, therefore have been explored as key components of cardiac stem cell and organoid culture focusing on the maturation of the cardiac organoids. Cytokines such as Activin A, bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), and vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) have all been found to contribute to cardiac lineage commitment when used in cardiac stem cell culture systems. In particular, Activin A and BMP4 have been associated with higher levels of myocyte markers in cardiac organoid cultures, whereas VEGF has been found to stimulate cardiomyocyte proliferation. This indicates the importance of selective growth factor and cytokine use in cardiac stem cell and organoid culture systems and the potential to push cardiac organoids to form more adult-like cell types.
Recent developments in cardiac research have enabled scientists to create three-dimensional organoids with atrial tissue, to provide more accurate models for studying atrial maturation processes. By supplementing these atrial organoids with growth factors, such as BMP9, cell maturity, and maturation were partially increased. There are, however, still some challenges that need to be overcome before atrial organoids can offer reliable, functional cardiac tissues and organs. Further research into controlling atrial organoid maturation at the genetic level will promote progress in this field. Moreover, further study into specializing atrial organoids using various techniques could yield meaningful results that have the potential to revolutionize cardiac treatments in the future. Increasing the complexity of cell-cell interactions through introducing additional neuronal and endothelial cells, and exploring the contribution from the extracellular matrix, as part of cardiomyocyte-containing cardiac organoids is being explored to improve the maturity and clinical relevance of these systems.
Cardiac organoid models and related 3D models such as spheroids are powerful tools that are poised to start to contribute to the early detection of drug, environmental toxin, and pollutants cardiac toxicity, and have applications in regenerative medicine. At Qkine we specialize in animal-free, high-purity, highly reproducible growth factors for commercial manufacture of organoid cultures and research use. Our team are happy to discuss collaborative or supply chain enhancement projects to scale-up and improve reproducibility in your organoid models.
Please contact us at email@example.com, or visit our organoid resource page for more information.